Universal Conditions for Genocide.

1.Public display of ethnic and religious differences through physical features, language and communal symbols.

2. Absence in multi-religious and/or multi-ethnic societies of strong integrating institutions.

3. Absence of the rule of law and presence of authoritarian traditions of governance.

4. Deep-seated insecurity on the part of ruling elites.

5. Widespread perception of vulnerable religious and ethnic groups as potential agents of politically subversive powers.

6. Prevalence of a racially or religiously discriminatory ideology or worldview that upholds a utopian vision of a homogenous society as the foundation of political unity.

7. Institutionalization of racial or religious discrimination in statute law or social custom.

8. Widespread communication by state and/or non-state actors of hateful propaganda that portrays members of religious or ethnic communities as subject peoples, aliens within society, or as subhuman creatures.

9. Outbreaks of organized violence by mobs or individuals against members of vulnerable religious or ethnic communities.

10. Habitual denial of discrimination by state and non-state actors that engage in oppressive practices, including violence, against vulnerable groups in society.

11. Widespread militarization of society and/or widespread influence of non-state terrorist groups or militias.